on Dalits at Kalappatti, Tamil Nadu
Report of PUCL fact finding team, May 2004
People’s Union for Civil Liberties (Tamilnadu/Pondicherry)
32. Kachaleeswarar Street, Off Armenian Street
Chennai 600 001
Findings of the team (pdf format)
The violent incidents in Kalappatti village on the evening of 16.05.2004
left about 75 houses in ashes. The affected Arundhathiyas ran away fearing
for their lives. The worst affected eight were undergoing treatment in
the emergency ward in the Government Hospital. The police, who had arrived
after the violence, have banned entry of any new persons to Kalappatti.
Permission was denied to human rights organizations, social organizations,
political parties etc. The weeklies such as Nakkeeran and Kumutham
and other newspapers had not provided a complete picture of the incidents.
People’s Union for Civil Liberties constituted a state level fact
finding team to visit Kalappatti to assess the actual conditions of the
affected victims and to investigate into the background of the incidents
that have been given a caste colour.
Team visited the village on 24.05.2004 and consisted of:
1. Mr. Markandan [Former Vice-Chancellor, Gandhigram Rural University]
2. Mr. Kana. Kurinji [State Vice President, PUCL – TN & Pondy.]
3. Mr. Balamurugan [Advocate and Member – National Council, PUCL]
4. Mr. Pavendan [Advocate and President, Tamil National Lawyers Centre]
5. Mr. Jeyaraman [Secretary, People’s Sarvodaya Movement]
6. Mr. Murugavel [Advocate and EC Member, PUCL Coimbatore]
7. Gopi [Executive Committee Member, PUCL, Coimbatore]
8. Sonia Manohar [Student, College of Media & Communication, Bangalore]
9. Nandini Rao [Student, College of Media & Communication, Bangalore]
10. Ilango [Social worker]
11. Chandrasekharan [Social worker]
The team was assigned the following tasks:
1. Visit the area where the incidents took place;
2. Meet the affected people;
3. Meet those against whom cases have been registered;
4. Meet those admitted with injuries in the Government Hospital;
5. Meet the officials of the District administration to get information
on actions taken to ensure normalcy in the area;
6. Write a report on the investigations
– Some Data
Kalappatti is a Gram Panchayat. It is located about 14 kms away to the
north of Gandhipuram of Coimbatore, northwest of Avinashi Road, 6 kms
from Peelamedu adjacent to the city. The major occupations of the people
are agriculture and employment in Sharp and Texmo industries and many
small industries. The village receives water from the Athikadavu scheme.
There is a temple under the control of the Hindu Endowment Board and some
small temples are also to be found.
Population of Kalappatti Panchayat : 8,000
Oppressed (Dalit) people : 1,200
Others (other than Dalits) : 6,800
Dalit area : 174 houses
Others : 675 houses
Total : 849 houses
The area affected in the incidents in Kalappatti is Sastri Road and
Puthu Colony. The team first visited the area where the incidents took
place. Most of the houses were in ruins, burnt or smashed. Women were
in a state of shock and in tears.
of the incidents
The team visited the affected areas. The affected general public, the
Gounders who have been charge sheeted, peasant leaders, Panchayat leaders,
village administrative officer, Tahsildar, District Collector and the
injured under treatment in the government hospital were interviewed and
information collected from them.
following conclusions are reached on these:
Sudha (20) w/o Murugesan, Surya (child 1 year)
" It was Sunday evening. My son and I were inside the house. All
of a sudden a mob came and poured petrol and set the house on fire.
Our house perished in the fire. I am scared of what is going to happen
Sastri Road and Puthu Colony are situated in Kalappatti Panchayat. These
are inhabited by the Dalits. On 16.05.2004 from around 6 PM to 9 PM, for
about 3 hours, the houses of the Dalits were under attack and more than
70 houses were set on fire and destroyed. Shops and temples did not escape
the arson. Cattle were burnt alive. Trees were also burnt down. Household
items were, destroyed TVs, clocks and ornaments were robbed. Cash was
Ponnuswamy (63) and Muthammal Ponnuswamy (45)
"We have a petty shop in front of our house. On 16th evening about
300 people looted our shop. Bottles were thrown away. The shop was set
on fire. The inside of the shop and the outside burnt. I was also injured
in the attack. About Rs.7000 inside the shop was looted."
All those whom the team met were asked to state the cause of the incidents.
On the basis of the evidences and comparing the information gathered,
the attack by the mob and the setting on fire commenced at 6 PM. Sivasami,
the farmer’s organization leader, said that it was at 6.30 PM. He
further stated that initially two from the Gounder caste were attacked.
This was the reason for the counterattack by the Gounders. But Selvaraj
s/o Muthuswamy (Gounder), undergoing treatment at the Government Hospital,
stated that when he came back after work at 6 PM, people were running
and that fire was raging in the colony and before he could find out what
had taken place, he was assaulted by the Dalit youths. Therefore it was
evident that fire was started in Sastri Road and Puthu colony even prior
to this and that the allegation of assault on two Gounders as a provocation
was false. The immediate reason for the incident was therefore not the
alleged attack on two Gounders. The attack on the Dalits was preplanned
R. Sivasamy, s/o Raman Gounder, Tamizhaga Vyavasayigal
Sangam, Kalappatti Branch.
"I am the Kalappatti branch leader of Tamizhaga Vyavasayigal Sangam.
In reality there are no problems by the colony people. We sit together
and drink tea in the teashop. Outsiders instigate the problem. In one
meeting organized by outsiders, they said that “we would enter the
temple, we would ask for Gounder girls, we would cut off the tuft of hair
on the Ayer’s head, we shall destroy the Agama mantram,” It
is these people who talk like this who create the problem. There was a
peace meeting because of the problems related to cricket game. The issue
of temple entry also led to peace meetings.
Those boys even asked questions to Tahsildar. They do not want to be called
‘harijan’. They are the prime cause of these problems. Thangarasu
beat up the colony boys when two of the colony boys stamped him. The next
day 30 of them came and threatened Thangarasu. Sub Inspector calmed them
down. Only after two of our boys were stabbed that evening that the problem
became big. Dalit women set fire to their own house. After that only our
people went around setting fire. They are threatening that cases will
be foisted under PCR. The son of the lame Madasamy Annachi who provides
loan has been foisted with PCR case. 22 persons were implicated under
PCR. But 52 have been arrested. We have been handing over our boys to
the police. Two Dalits who have been accused but have not been arrested.
The MP and MLA visited them but not us."
a. To the question ‘What do you think of Dalits entering the temple
to pray?’ his answer was that there should be equality. ‘If
they wish to create history, then we will challenge it’
b. To the question ‘Would you give the Dalits jobs in your field?’
his answer was that after the problem is over, the issue of their employment
would be considered.
background for this is:
- The anger caused by the Gounder boys three years ago when they asked
the Dalits boys to pick up the ball while playing cricket. This led
to the beginning of tension between the two.
- The Dalits were not allowed to enter the Mariamman temple managed
by the Hindu Endowment Board.
- A poster on Ambedkar birth anniversary was pasted by the youths of
the Dalit based organization on the temple walls leading to the beating
up of one of the Dalit youth; This was then followed by a peace meeting
organized by Tahsildar;
- The Dalits resorted to a road blockade when the sitting BJP Member
of Parliament had come to campaign for reelection alleging that he had
not done anything for them. This led Nagaraj, a BJP member of Ward No.3,
to declare that there was a need to put an end to the arrogance of the
Dalits. It is understood that he further stated that a lesson would
be taught to them after the elections are over. A suitable reply was
decided to be given to them at a meeting held by Paiyya Gounder, the
Panchayat President, Kalappatti Ponnuswamy and Devaraj in the event
of a poll boycott by the Dalit. This is one of the reasons.
- On the previous day on 15.05.04 evening some Gounder youths traveled
along with Dalit youth in a share-auto (autorickshaws that carry 6 passengers).
The Gounder youth slapped a Dalit youth alleging that the leg of Dalit
youth touched him. Later the Dalit youths went to the Gounder youth
and questioned his action. This is considered as the immediate reason
for the subsequent incidents.
- Wearing such clothes as churidar by Dalit girls and moving about
in these clothes came in for criticisms from Gounder youths and those
in the tempo stand.
- Girls belonging to the Gounder castes that were going to colleges
and schools or going outside were teased by Dalit youths.
"A big mob came running. They threw away whatever they could
lay their hands upon. They set fire and I saw my house burning. Vessels
were destroyed and clothing burnt. Except for the grinding stone everything
else became ashes."
1. Cricket game - Three years ago
2. Demanding rights of entry to temple - For the past two years
3. Teasing girls - Since a year ago
4. Pasting of poster of Dr.Ambedkar on his birth anniversary - April 2004
5. Road blockade during the election campaign
of BJP candidate -- May 2004
6. Altercation in the share-auto 3 years ago - 15 May 2004
Except for the issue of eve teasing, all other stated reasons are clearly
related to the issue of assertion of democratic rights and equality before
Both the parties have stated the issue of eve teasing as an issue. If
this allegation is further probed, it can be found that the issue that
emerges is contributory to such behaviors and are related to the issues
such as power, property rights, Puritanism and social status. Amongst
these, the single most critical issue that provokes a whole community
indirectly is the notion of inferiority of that community. This gets translated
into the protection of the chastity of women. It is for this reason that
in all conflicts that women are targeted for attack – her chastity
Oppressive forces destroy the community’s purity and their seeds
are attempted to be planted. Any war or conflicts do not matter to these
forces. The whole community rises up when they are told that the women
are teased. This then constitutes an easy reason for the subsequent assault.
A good example is that the larger or majority communities and their organizations
use this allegation as an excuse to attack Dalit and minority communities.
(1) Pamphlets used by the Hindu fascists prior to Gujarat riots the use
of the allegation of teasing of women police to justify the brutal murders
of Dalits in Tirunelveli when 17 were forcibly drowned in the river.
(2) The rumors that a Thevar woman was to be married off to a Dalit being
used to justify attack on Dalits that subsequently led to caste riots
in southern district.
In the hierarchical caste order, teasing of Dalit women by high caste
men, entering into a casual sexual relationship etc are considered permissible.
But a reversal of role by the Dalit men is considered as worthy of being
punished with death and attacks on the community as punishment. As long
as the perception that women are property exists in society, any solution
would only be cosmetic.
Pazhaniammal (27), Maruthachalam (35) and Prakash (14)
"The mob that came in the evening poured petrol into our house
and set it on fire. We could not stop them. Two goats 4 years of age
were also burnt alive. I could not bear their cries.. Do such people
The game of cricket entered and took roots in India consequent to colonialism
and can be played without any body contact with other players (See ‘A
corner of a foreign field: The Indian history of a British sport ‘by
Ramachandra Guha). Casteism plays a role in the game reflecting the society.
The fact that other than Vinod Kamble, there has not been any significant
Dalit player in the last 70 years of cricket is not to be understood as
an unexpected outcome. In Kalappatti one of the important incidents is
that the children of the Dalits were ordered to gather the ball going
outside the boundary in the cricket game played by the upper caste children.
Sreenivasan (60) and Veerammal
"About 500 people came and attacked all those who they got sight
of. Set fire to my house. Cycle and bike in the house were destroyed.
They did not hear our pleadings. All the things my three sons slowly
saved and got are all now lost."
Entry into a temple is a right of all peoples. This is especially so
where the temple is under the control of the government. There have been
problems related to the denial of temple entry. Peace meetings were held
by the government twice without resolution of the issue nor related laws
Rasathy Karuppuswamy, and 2 year old child
"The mob attacked and set on fire. They took away our TV. They
shouted at us “Are you not seeing the TV and becoming arrogant?”
Uma Sampath (28)
"House was burnt. TV smashed and ornaments looted."
Pasting of poster regarding Dr.Ambedkar’s birth anniversary on
the temple walls was prevented. In this regard, Babu (20 years), a Dalit,
was assaulted. It is a practice that the temple walls are used to paste
posters on all functions that take place in the village. Only this particular
poster was objected to. This poster was not pasted anywhere in the village.
Instead, the poster was pasted only at the Four Roads at the entry point
of the village and in the Sathy-Coimbatore highway.
Balan (40), tea shop owner, Adi Tamizhar Viduthalai
"I have a teashop near the temple. About 300-400 people came running
with knives, poles, canes, petrol bombs etc. They hurriedly began setting
fire. The temple and teashop were also burnt. Only the trident remains.
That green tree also half burnt."
When the allegation of boycott of election by Dalits is examined, it
is seen that the Dalits complained to C.P Radhakrishnan, the sitting MP
and candidate of BJP, that during his tenure, the Dalits had not benefited
in any manner in the village. The Dalits had then resorted to a road blockade
when the candidate refused to give them a patient hearing. The MP returned
on coming to know of this action of the Dalits. The local BJP leader Nagaraja
Gounder warned that this arrogant behaviour would be put to an end once
and for all after the elections were over. In addition, in a meeting organized
by Paiyya Gounder, Kalappatti Ponnuswamy and Devaraj a similar decision
was said to have been arrived at.
Murugesan (22) s/o Ponnuswamy
"When it was known that the BJP candidate Radhakrishnan M.P was
coming here to canvas for votes, in order to make it known that he had
not done anything during his tenure to our area, we resorted to a road
blockade. He returned without coming to our village. Then the BJP Ward
3 councilor stated ‘let the elections get over. We will take care
of you.’ He went away. There were strangers in the mob. 40 feet
coconut and 25 feet neem tree are burnt."
A rumour that the Dalits campaigned for a poll boycott was spread around.
But the team could observe that most of the Dalits had voted with the
mark on the finger visible. The allegation that they had boycotted the
polls is evidently false.
Ramalingam s/o Thavasimuthu (40), grocery shop owner
"We belong to the Nadar community. We have a general store. I was
asked that day “Why have you put up shop here? If you continue
to put up the shop, you would not remain alive”. I was threatened.
I have a child and I feel that I should leave this place."
As such every citizen has also the right not to caste his/her vote if
he/she is not satisfied with any of the candidates. PUCL had filed a PIL
case demanding that the option that one is not voting for anyone should
be provided in the list of choices for voting in the electronic voting
machine or voters slip (PUCL Vs Govt. Of India (SC 2004) Case is still
pending.). This case is pending. If such an opportunity is provided, the
boycott of polls would become part of the democratic process and there
would be scope for professing one’s preferred ideology and for reforms
in the electoral laws.
Sekhar s/o Balan
"About 200 people came running. They had metal pipes, cycle chains
and petrol bombs. In Sastri Road 16 were injured of which 6 are in serious
conditions. This problem started three years back. Gounder children
studying in the 6th and 7th standard were playing cricket. They asked
our boys to throw back the ball that went out. When our boys said that
they have other work to do, the Gounder boys abused them ‘sakkilitha…..’
and beat them up. When our boys came and complained about this, Paulraja
Annan went to enquire what the problem was, he too was beaten up. We
filed a complaint in the Kovilpalayam police station, a peace meeting
was called and for the time being the issue subsided."
BJP and CPI were the main contestants in the May 2004 parliamentary election
in Coimbatore constituency. C.P Radhakrishnan for BJP and Subharayan for
CPI contested. It is obvious that the dominant castes were provoked with
the threat of boycott of BJP who stands for the protection of specific
class, religious and caste interests. Looking at the way the assaults
were carried out in Sastri Nagar and Puthu Colony, the houses were attacked,
set on fire and looted. A child was thrown aside. The assault continued
for three hours from the early hours in the evening. The assault was carried
out by a mob. In the assault the participation of outsiders and strangers
along with people from the village is evident. Burnt out houses, half
burnt goat kid, lamp posts sans lamp, the damaged drinking water taps,
smashed TVs, and broken objects indicate that the attack was organized
and planned. The incident in the share-auto seems to be an immediate cause.
Issues such as those related to cricket game, eve teasing, temple entry
denial, poster on Ambedkar birth anniversary, and boycott of candidate
in the election all exploded with the share-auto issue.
Head is the most important in the human anatomy. Legs are the lower most
part of the body. Right is superior and strong. Left is inferior and weaker.
Right signifies male character and left signifies female character.
Up x down
Strong x weak
Right x left
Superior x inferior
Head x leg
Any good thing ought to be carried out with the right hand. Right leg
should be placed forward first. Food should be taken with right hand.
Left hand should only be used to clean one’s anus. Money should
be given/taken using the right hand. Similar biases pertaining to the
body parts have significant importance in Hindu scriptures. As a result
of this chathurvarna (Brahma – Hindu god –
creator, manusmrithy, bhagawad geetha) was born. Brahmins from
the head, kshathriyas from the shoulders, vysyas from
the hips and shudras from the legs were created. Those further
below are called as ‘Scheduled Castes’.
Nagaraj s/o P. Kasi
"The Gounders expect that we would get up and give up the seat
to them in the bus. When our girls wear churidar, they are teased badly.
When we wear good clothes, they would insist that we wear clothes suited
to our caste. They do not like us to go outside and work and wear neat
and fine clothes. The bus stop is near the Gounders place. On 15th Saturday
2004 evening when we were returning by the share-auto, one of our boys
was slapped by Thangarasu, a Gounder boy, alleging that our boy’s
leg touched him. When we went and questioned this the next day, they
warned us that they would drive us away."
Gounders belonging to the shudra varna, though a relatively lower position,
expecting respect and subservience from the still 'lower' castes is a
reality. Touching of the leg of an upper caste by the leg of a Dalit is
an unforgivable offence. This incident is to be seen thus within the framework
of manusmrithy where untouchability constitute an essential component
of its laws.
Therefore, the incident that served as a trigger was the touching of a
Dalit’s leg.. Cattle were killed. Property of the people was destroyed.
Women are in shock. Children are scared.
Ramesh (21) s/o Shanmugham (40)
"I do coolie work. I am the branch Secretary of Adi Thamizhar Viduthalai
Munnani. The tradition of not allowing us to enter the Mariamman temple
continues to this day. Though this has been discussed with the Tahsildar.
Even the former Panchayat member Shanmugham could not enter the temple.
On the day of the incidents, I had requested the police to provide us
immediate protection. Head Constable Karunakaran said that protection
cannot be given as there is a lack of police personnel. When I was returning,
there were 10 persons on the left side and another 10 on the right side
with pieces of pipe, knives, poles, sword etc. They said” Hey…
Sakkilithayoli… asking for a Gounder girl, eh?” I was beaten
on my knee with the pipe. I was slashed with the sword on my back. Though
injured at 6.30, I was able to go to the government hospital only at
9.30. By this time, a lot of blood drained away. I am in pain and am
weak. Is the gaining of rights by Dalits not liked by any one?"
Babu (24) s/o Balan
"There were also women in the mob that came to attack us. They
threw chilly powder. They asked “Hey, do you want to celebrate
Ambedkar’s birth anniversary? On 13.4.2004 in connection with
Ambedkar birth anniversary celebrations, a poster of Adi Tamizhar Viduthalai
Munnani was pasted on the temple walls, which is the usual place for
pasting all posters. This incident became big and the police had to
Having lost the right to equality, freedom of speech, right to vote,
right to chose and preach any religion, freedom of thought as expressed
in the Constitution of India , Kalappatti and its destruction are the
results of attempts to recover these rights and freedom. India has celebrated
golden jubilee of the independence. The 10th elections demonstrating democracy
have taken place. Kalappatti incidents call for a review of laws, the
manner of their implementation, functioning of the government machinery
and electoral process. It is noteworthy that there is no freedom to even
celebrate the birth anniversary of the Father of Indian Constitution,
Shanker (25) Diploma in Mechanical Engineering
"The two-tumbler system still exists in some teashops. A casual
visitor cannot see this but only when closely observed one can. It is
not only in the teashops, but such practices are there in Sharp and
Texmo industries. Our boys, even if they score good marks in examinations,
are not employed as supervisors…only coolie work for us. Amongst
us there are 2 BEs, 5 diplomas and 7 college graduates."
Though Coimbatore is a nerve center for textiles mills, machine tools,
engineering industries and motor pump sets, agriculture continues to be
the major source of livelihood in the rural areas. The landlords invariably
belong to Gounder or Naidu castes. The basic manual labour in agriculture
is carried out by the Dalits. For ages, these people depended on the landlords
for livelihood. The caste order was oppressive. Coimbatore is one amongst
those cities impacted by the new economic policy since 1990. 75 percent
of the textile mills have closed. Engineering industry also face a set
back. Workers were being made redundant. Drought like conditions have
made lands fallow.
The Dalits consequently had to move to the cities in search of livelihood.
They worked in construction sites, as plumbers and such like. Contact
with the outside world, education, and propaganda of political groups
had begun to ease the tight knot that is the caste hierarchy.
Small efforts at asserting rights meant questioning the hitherto unquestioned
authority of the oppressive castes. These led to such incidents as the
murder of Murugesan in Sekudanthazhi (Avinashi), externment of Dalits
in Kara Cheri (Kinathukkadavu) and being driven away from the village
Education and, political and social awareness led the Dalits to think
about their status. This led to the coming to light of the caste oppression
that was rampant in the suburbs of Coimbatore. The dawn of the 21st century
saw the murder of Sekudanthazhi Murugesan followed by the caste oppression
on the Arundhathiya caste in Kinathukkadavu Kara Cheri.
The Kalappatti incidents need to be seen as a continuation of this process.
The caste order, while maintaining a functional hierarchy, also confers
the logic and legitimacy to oppress those below by those above. In this
power sharing structure, Varnashrama Dharma retained the rigid
order without any fracturing all these years. When a challenge to this
order is perceived, status quo is sought to be achieved brutally. The
prevailing peace is then conducive to the oppressive forces to maintain
What took place at Kalappatti is one part of this process. 75 huts and
cattle were confined to the flames. If the whole of society do not condemn
this assault, these incidents would continue to be enacted. The law has
woken up from the slumber and commenced to lethargically move its wheels.
The oppressive castes still cannot tolerate the conscientization of the
lDalits and their emergence as a political power.
Saraswathy (35), Pazhaniswamy (16)
"My son is handicapped in both legs. He is 16 now. I have to brush
his teeth and give him bath. Everything has to be done by me. We were
inside the house and had the door shut. Smoke was gushing all around.
I wanted to run away with my son but could not carry him alone. I thought
that if we were to die then both of us should die together. Neighbors
soon came and helped us to escape."
A significant factor of this village is that the Gounders here are of
two sub-castes – Kongu Velala Gounder and Narambu Katti Gounder.
The Kongu Velala Gounders own land, wealth, agriculture and produce while
Niramabu Katti Gounders are below them in terms of affluence. But during
the assault on the Arundhathiya community, both these sub-castes were
together in the deed.
Though the information on the assault was communicated to the police,
the negligent reaction from the police led to the destruction of property
worth lakhs to the fire and arson. The district administration arrested
53 under the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act. Relief has been provided
to the victims. As the first installment, the minimum relief amount has
been disbursed. The assurances of Muruganandam, the Collector of Coimbatore
district, that an amount of Rs.9 lakhs is to be disbursed in the next
phase and that the law would take its course are to be applauded.
Findings of the team (pdf format)
Recommendations of PUCL fact finding team
- Adequate and satisfactory compensation to be given to those victims
who were assaulted and whose property destroyed;
a. Construction of new houses for those who have become
homeless and repairs of damaged houses
b. Relief that has been provided as of now is grossly
inadequate. There are a number of persons who have been left out and
they should also be given relief.
c. A proper and realistic assessment is to be made
of the property lost by each household and compensation for these are
to be immediately provided.
d. Public property such as buildings, street lights,
drinking water taps etc destroyed or damaged should be restored.
- The main accused in the FIR are still not taken into custody. Immediate
steps should be taken to take them into custody.
- Fear is prevalent that the Dalits would be attacked by the dominant
caste. Therefore, for a short period,
a. Protection to be provided to them.
b. Steps should be taken by the administration to ensure
that those accused are prevented from entering the village under the
provisions of the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.
- Government should appoint special public prosecutor to aid the victims.
- The manifestation of untouchability exists in the temple managed
by the Endowment Board of the government, which should be rectified
by the government.
- Separate tumbler system still prevails in the region which has to
be effectively eliminated.
- A bus stopping should be arranged in the habitation of the Dalits
in front of Vilayattu Mariamman temple.
- A public toilet for men should be constructed and a playground should
be established in the habitation of the Dalits.
- A training should be arranged amongst the Dalits on their rights
- During caste clashes, the police should not hesitate from protecting
the people without any delay.
- A public telephone number should be allotted for reporting any such
- Somannur, Avinashi, Karacherry, Kulathur, Valayapalayam, Kalipalayam,
Paramasivapalayam, Pallapalayam, Neelambur, Madhapur, Shyamalapuram,
and now Kalappatti experiences brutal caste oppression. Government should
immediately look into this and bring out a white paper on this. Newer
approach should be developed to put an end to untouchability.
- A peace meeting should be convened by the district administration
between the two communities in Kalappatti to work out modalities for
peace amongst these communities.